The findings of this study continue the discussion as to how adult learners make sense of their teacher preparation experiences. The quality of that schooling has, however, been a subsidiary target, often poorly defined, and in reality seldom well implemented.
The findings also reveal internal contradictions within the Unified Examination Policy and external contradictions between this and other current education policies in Armenia.
In both regions, parallel processes of centralisation and decentralisation are leading, on the one hand, to the establishment of national multi-purpose institutions, and, on the other, to a form of regional provision based on networks of mutually-supporting institutions.
The study also considers the role professional codes contribute to principal decisions. It is on the backdrop of such global efforts that Kenya initiated the Free Primary Education FPE policy with the intent to increase access to schools for disadvantaged groups such as girls.This affects children from poor families and minorities more than the rich and dominant social groups. The study additionally benefits from the author's experiential knowledge gained from three years of professional work in Armenia as a teacher trainer. Drawing on three bodies of research literature, concerned with donor supported country systems, classroom interaction, and evaluation, this dissertation tests the theory that failure to weave insights from all three perspectives together, when formulating policies, is a root cause of poor results. Conclusions both support and challenge existing theoretical literature relating to large-scale, high-stakes examinations and small states. However, local and sub-regional education reforms were not limited to the narrow economic view of education promoted mainly by the World Bank. By internal factors I mean variables such as self-image and attitude towards leadership. At the broadest level, the study cautions against the uncritical international transfer of policies and practices, and highlights the importance of HRM strategies being carefully tailored to local cultural and contextual conditions. External factors such as poverty and negative attitude towards girls' education continue to inhibit girls from active schooling in the wake of the Free Primary Education policy. The time period covered for the case study deals with the implementation of two phases of SPAS, implemented from and respectively. I draw my frame of reference from theories of ethnocentrism and social reproduction. A country's inability to provide a steady supply of appropriately trained and experienced teachers threatens not only its education sector, but also the sustainability of its social and economic development. The findings also reveal internal contradictions within the Unified Examination Policy and external contradictions between this and other current education policies in Armenia.
The data-collecting methods emphasise participant observation, in-depth interviewing and documentary analysis. Three bodies of international literature are reviewed to provide a theoretical framework for the study.
At the broadest level, the study cautions against the uncritical international transfer of policies and practices, and highlights the importance of HRM strategies being carefully tailored to local cultural and contextual conditions.
The research strategy is largely hermeneutic and interpretive in nature.The findings of this study reveal that while board of governor members had a poor understanding of the partnership policy and this constrained implementation , the professionals and policy-makers did little to help them understand it. The study reveals that the reform was largely centrally designed and the ability to fund it rests with the donor agencies. Education policy priorities for the small states of the eastern Caribbean, with special reference to St Vincent and the Grenadines George Bristol, Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol - unpublished MEd This study examines the extent to which currently powerful international themes and agendas, promoted by the World Bank and other multi-lateral institutions, have impacted education policy priorities in the small nation-states of the Eastern Caribbean. Many studies have taken hegemonic stances in which early school leavers are criticised for their decisions to disengage from schooling. Studies of this nature tend to shed little light on the personal or internal factors that hinder or enhance women's attainment of school leadership. Factors affecting the formulation and implementation of the educational reform in Papua New Guinea Willy Yamuna Ako, Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol - unpublished EdD This study investigates the policy-making and implementation of educational reforms in developing countries, and more specifically the nature and implementation of the Educational Reform in Papua New Guinea. It explores the premise that ideas generated in international policy research influence and shape the educational priorities of developing countries. However, the research also seeks to identify ways in which ethnographers can sensitively, insightfully and ethically research complex and unfamiliar social worlds. In the light of the small-state literature, the thesis critically evaluates recent developments in tertiary education in the two largest groupings of small states — the Caribbean and the South Pacific. The findings of three level HLM showed that the proficiency performance standards increase teacher curriculum autonomy and their spending time for content professional development programs although AMOs strength and high school graduation school exit exams decreased them. The research is being carried out in two linked schools primary and junior secondary in the remote areas of the North West District in Botswana. The primary purpose of the research is to identify the barriers to and opportunities for inclusive education in Papua New Guinea and other developing countries, and to identify ways in which governments and international development organisation can overcome these barriers and make best use of these opportunities. Research capacity in small states, with special reference to St Lucia Keith Holmes, Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol - unpublished PhD In recent years, governments, development agencies and civil society organisations have prioritised education.
Field work was also carried out in Jamaica and Saint Lucia where qualitative interviews were undertaken with senior personnel involved in HRM. Most previous studies have used traditional research methodologies focused upon attitudinal assessments of children, teachers and parents.
Their economies have been regarded as open, constrained by a small internal market with limited demand for specialisation, and capable of sustaining only a small modern sector.The second relates to contemporary debates about the nature and purpose of social and educational research. This has inhibited the effective implementation, practicality and ownership of the reform by the local people. These are supplemented by a review of primary and secondary source documents. The findings suggest that the school improvement paradigm holds real possibilities for quality improvement if evaluative activities are developed, not on their own, but as part of improved professionalism at teacher and administrative levels. Using the biographical approach the study examines the impact of gender socialization at home, school and in leadership on the self-image of three successful high school women principals in Kenya and how their self-image contributed to their ascension onto school leadership. Collectively, these make teaching unappealing and challenge teacher recruitment and retention policies and practices. Thirty key informants participated in the fieldwork. Most studies explain this underrepresentation in terms of external or institutional factors that have impeded women's advancement onto school leadership. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a cross section of education personnel and students within the TCI. The thesis argues that the development of national tertiary education sectors is primarily motivated by issues of access, cost, control and human resource development needs. This affects children from poor families and minorities more than the rich and dominant social groups.
National responses to a wide range of local needs have thus resulted in a multi-level tertiary sector which has the potential to be both politically and economically viable.